Opiates include controlled prescription substances that are derived from Opium, which is a chemical that occurs naturally in poppy seeds and plants. These drugs are used clinically for treating mild to severe pain in patients. Due to their intensely calming effects, Opioids have tremendously high rates of abuse which, in many cases, can lead to addiction.

The National Institute On Drug Abuse has reported that “In 2019, nearly 50,000 people in the United States died from opioid-involved overdoses.”

An addiction to Painkillers often begins after someone is prescribed the medication for pain following an accident or injury. Patients are given a prescription and specified dose from a doctor; often patients have no intention of abusing the medication. However, over a period of time, a person may feel that the drug is no longer as effective as it was in the beginning. This feeling is caused by an increased tolerance to the prescribed Painkiller, which means that the substance has built up within a person’s body.

A tolerance can also cause a person to take doses larger than their recommended amount in order to achieve the effects they want. Increasing the medication dosage can lead to a physical dependence whereby the user needs to continue taking the drug to feel normal. Eventually a physical dependence can lead to cravings, which are characterized by growing urges to continue using the drug despite negative consequences that may occur.

When a person’s drug-seeking behavior scales completely out of control and begins to compromise their physical and psychological health, a full-blown addiction is present. Addiction is far more serious than a strong desire to use drugs — it is a neurological disease that feels inescapable to the person suffering.

An individual who struggles with a substance abuse disorder will often wish to quit but feel unable to do so on their own. The only way a person can fully overcome the grips of an addiction to Opioid Painkillers is by seeking treatment at an inpatient rehab center.

Types Of Opiates

Opiates are prescribed for a wide range of medical needs. There are two main classifications for this type of drug: antagonists and agonists.

Antagonists, such as Naltrexone and Naloxone, are considered to be less addictive than agonists, though the potential for abuse still exists. They are often used to help with the detoxification process, which often takes place as the first part of addiction treatment.

Agonists mimic the effects of naturally-occurring endorphins in the body and produce an Opiate effect by interacting with specific receptor sites in the brain. Agonists include drugs like Morphine and Fentanyl, which are most commonly used in medical settings and have the strongest effects. Many substances in this category have a very high potential for abuse and addiction. Other examples of agonists include Hydrocodone, Oxycodone, Heroin, and Buprenorphine.

The most common Opiate agonists can be found in the list below.

  • Codeine

    Manufactured to relieve mild to moderate pain and coughing, Codeine is less potent than other Opioid Painkillers. It is easily obtained with a prescription and is present in some over-the-counter medicines. Commonly abused among young adults, Codeine is often combined with sugary drinks to create a mixture referred to as “Purple Drank” or “Sizzurp.”

  • Darvocet/Darvon

    Though now banned by the FDA, Darvocet and Darvon are Propoxyphene-based Painkillers that were responsible for thousands of hospitalizations and deaths during their prime. While prescriptions for these drugs are no longer written, a black market still exists for the substances.

  • Demerol

    A Narcotic used to treat moderate to severe pain, Demerol is less frequently prescribed in modern times because of its high potential for addiction. Demerol is the brand name for Meperidine, which has euphoric effects similar to Morphine.

  • Dilaudid

    Sometimes referred to as “Hospital Grade Heroin,” Dilaudid is a powerful type of Painkiller. Available in extended-release tablets, Dilaudid abuse can quickly lead to breathing problems or even death.

  • Fentanyl

    A Synthetic Painkiller that is up to 100 times as potent as Morphine, Fentanyl is only prescribed in cases of severe pain. When used in conjunction with other Painkillers such as Heroin, Fentanyl can quickly lead to overdose and other dangerous side effects.

  • Hydrocodone

    A main ingredient in many powerful Painkillers, Hydrocodone can be found in drugs such as Vicodin. It is typically combined with Acetaminophen or Ibuprofen, but the FDA has also approved pure Hydrocodone medications.

  • Methadone

    An Opioid used for moderate to severe pain, Methadone is also used as a way to curb cravings for people who are addicted to other substances, including Heroin. Despite its use in helping to treat other addictions, Methadone is still an addictive substance in its own right.

  • Morphine

    Morphine has been touted as a godsend for people suffering from severe chronic pain. It is also one of the most addictive substances known and responsible for a large amount of unintentional drug-related deaths nationwide.

  • Oxycodone

    Oxycodone is sold under brand names including OxyContin and Percocet. It is a widely prescribed Painkiller and has a high potential for abuse.

Opioids Vs. Opiates

Many people have questions surrounding the difference between these two terms. As it turns out, both terms are often interchanged because these substances largely produce the same effects.

  • Opiates

    Opiates are substances with active ingredients that are naturally derived from Opium. Common Opiates include Morphine and Codeine, both of which are directly made from the Opium found in poppy plants.

  • Opioids

    Opioids are synthetically manufactured substances that mimic the natural effects of Opium. Some Opioids are fully Synthetic, while others are only partially Synthetic — meaning they still contain natural Opium.

Both Opioids and Opiates work by activating receptors in the brain and depressing the central nervous system. When receptors become activated by one of these drugs, they release “feel-good” chemicals known as endorphins. The release of endorphins caused by Opiate or Opioid use leads to feelings of relaxation and calmness, which can be highly addicting.

Ultimately, it doesn’t matter if a drug was derived from a natural source or was chemically manufactured. Both Opiates and Opioids carry an equal potential for abuse and addiction. Please discuss these risks with your doctor before taking an Opiate or Opioid medication.

Opiate Effects And Abuse

Opiates produce euphoric and tranquil effects when taken in amounts that are larger than prescribed. The pleasant, care-free feelings a person experiences when taking these drugs are often what leads to destructive patterns of abuse.

Opiate addiction is often characterized by compulsive drug-seeking behavior. For example, in an attempt to obtain more of the drug, a person may visit multiple doctors in order to get new prescriptions, otherwise known as “doctor shopping.”

The pathological urges to use these drugs can also drive people to borrow, buy, or steal the drugs from friends and family. As an act of desperation, some individuals may resort to seeking out Heroin, an illegal Opioid that is commonly purchased on the streets. Despite the well-known dangers of Heroin, it is often easier and cheaper to obtain than Opioid pills.

In one survey, 94% of respondents said they chose to use Heroin over prescription Painkillers because it was cheaper and easier to get.

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    Abuse Statistics

    Millions of people struggle with an Opioid Painkiller use disorder, and their family members and other loved ones are also impacted. Some of the most staggering abuse statistics are below.

    66.6
    percent

    In 2018, Opioids were linked to 66.6% of all substance overdose fatalities.

    46
    people

    Each day, 46 people die from a prescription Painkiller overdose.

    10.1
    million

    As of 2019, 10,100,000 Americans took Opioids improperly during the preceding 12 months.